• Phonological Awareness, Phonemic Awareness, and Phonics



    What is phonological awareness?
    Phonological awareness refers to an individual's awareness of the sound structure of our oral language.  This includes syllables, blending and segmenting onset and rimes, rhyming, hearing how many words are in a sentence, and blending and segmenting phonemes.  
    What is phonemic awareness?
    Phonemic awareness is the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words. Before children learn to read print, they need to become more aware of how the sounds in words work. They must understand that words are made up of speech sounds, or phonemes (the smallest parts of sound in a spoken word that make a difference in a word's meaning).
    Why is Phonemic Awareness Important?

    Ø It improves students’ word reading and comprehension

    Ø It helps students learn to spell

    Examples of Phonemic Awareness Skills

    ü Blending: What word am I trying to say? Nnnnn-oooo-t.

    ü Segmentation (first sound isolation): What is the first sound in not?

    ü Segmentation (last sound isolation): What is the last sound in not?

    ü Segmentation (complete): What are all the sounds you hear in not?



     What is phonics?

    Phonics is the basic reading instruction that teaches children
    the relationships between letters and sounds. Phonics teaches children to use these relationships to speak and write words. According to a study by the Partnership for Reading, the objective of phonics instruction is to help children learn and use the "alphabetic principle"-the systematic and predictable relationships between written letters and spoken sounds. Knowing these relationships through phonics helps young readers to recognize familiar words accurately and easily "decode" new words.


    Why is Phonics Important?

    In order to read well, children need to understand that written
    English consists of letters and groups of letters that stand for a series of sounds.


    The Progressing Stages of Phonics:

    ü Realize that sentences are made up of words

    ü Realize that words can rhyme. Make your own rhymes.

    ü Realize that words can be broken down into syllables. Start 
          breaking down words into syllables.

    ü Realize that words can begin with the same sound. Practice these 
          first sounds.

    ü Realize that words can end with the same sound. Practice these
          ending sounds.

    ü Realize that words can have the same medial sounds. Practice these
          medial sounds.

    ü Realize that words can be broken down into individual sounds.
          Practice these sounds.

    ü Realize that sounds can be deleted from words to make new
          words. Practice these.

    ü Start blending sounds to make words.

    ü Start segmenting words into component sounds.


    What to Look For:

    · Know consonant sounds.

    · Know that a, e, i, o, and u are vowels.

    · Know sounds of digraphs. Example: /sh/ in shell. 

    · Know the sounds of consonant blends. Example: /bl/ in block and /str/
       in string.


    · Know short vowel word families. Example: at, an, op, it, in.

    · Break words into syllables.

    · Find familiar words within unknown words. Example:mat in matter.

    · Substitute or add letters to make new words. Example: When asked  
      to take away the lettert in the wordtan, can the child say the word   
    Can the child put the lettert on an to make the word ant?